Students deepen their understanding of multiplication by exploring factors and multiples, multiplicative comparison, as well as multidigit multiplication.
The scope and sequence for 4th Grade Math was adjusted in August 2021. The factors and multiples (4.OA.4) topic has been moved out of this unit and into the beginning of our unit on Fraction Equivalence. Learn more about this update.
In Grade 4 Unit 2, students multiply up to fourdigit numbers by onedigit numbers, relying on their understanding of place value and properties of operations, as well as visual models like an area model, to solve.
As a foundation for their multiyear work with multiplication and division, students in Grade 2 learned to partition a rectangle into rows and columns and write a repeated addition sentence to determine the total. They also skipcounted by 5s, 10s, and 100s. Then, in Grade 3, students developed a conceptual understanding of multiplication and division in relation to equal groups, arrays, and area. They developed a variety of strategies to build toward fluency with multiplication and division within 100 and applied that knowledge to the context of one and twostep problems using the four operations.
To begin the unit, students extend their understanding of multiplication situations that they learned in Grade 3 to include multiplicative comparison using the words “times as many.” This helps acquaint students with these types of problems before solving them with larger quantities later in the unit. It also gives students time to refresh their multiplication and division facts from Grade 3, since the problems in Topic A are limited to those that involve multiplication and division within 100. Then, students move into twodigit by onedigit, threedigit by onedigit, fourdigit by onedigit, and twodigit by twodigit multiplication, using the area model, partial products, and finally the standard algorithm, making connections between all methods as they go. The use of the area model serves to help students conceptually understand multiplication and as a connection to their work with area and perimeter (4.MD.3), a supporting cluster standard. Finally, with a full understanding of all multiplication cases, they then apply their new multiplication skills to solve multistep word problems using multiplication, addition, and subtraction, including cases involving multiplicative comparison (4.NBT.5, 4.OA.3, 4.MD.3), allowing for many opportunities to connect content across multiple domains.
This unit affords lots of opportunities to deepen students’ mathematical practices. For example, “when students decompose numbers into sums of multiples of baseten units to multiply them, they are seeing and making use of structure (MP.7). Further, “by reasoning repeatedly (MP.8) about the connection between math drawings and written numerical work, students can come to see multiplication and division algorithms as abbreviations or summaries of their reasoning about quantities” (NBT Progression, p. 14). Lastly, as students solve multistep word problems involving addition, subtraction, and multiplication, they are modeling with mathematics (MP.4).
Students’ work in this unit will prepare them for fluency with the multiplication algorithm in Grade 5 (5.NBT.5). Students also learn about new applications of multiplication in future grades, including scaling quantities up and down in Grade 5 (5.NF.5), all the way up to rates and slopes in the middle grades (6.RP, 7.RP). Every subsequent grade level depends on the understanding of multiplication and its algorithm, making this unit an important one for students in Grade 4.
Pacing: 21 instructional days (18 lessons, 2 flex days, 1 assessment day)
For guidance on adjusting the pacing for the 20212022 school year, see our 4th Grade Scope and Sequence Recommended Adjustments.
This assessment accompanies Unit 2 and should be given on the suggested assessment day or after completing the unit.
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Models for up to 4digit by 1digit Multiplication 
Written Numerical Work 
Base ten block array (remedial  can be concrete or pictorial) 
Horizontally written partial products 
Graph paper array (remedial) 
Partial product algorithm with decreasing partial products 
Area model 
Partial product algorithm with increasing partial products 

Standard algorithm 
Models for up to 2digit by 2digit Multiplication 
Written Numerical Work 
Base ten block array (remedial  can be concrete or pictorial) 
Horizontally written partial products 
Graph paper array (remedial) 
Partial product algorithm with decreasing partial products 
Area model 
Partial product algorithm with increasing partial products 

Standard algorithm 
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partial product
To see all the vocabulary for this course, view our 4th Grade Vocabulary Glossary.
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With Fishtank Plus you can access our Daily Word Problem Practice and our contentaligned Fluency Activities created to help students strengthen their application and fluency skills.
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