Students continue their work with multidigit multiplication and division and the baseten system in order to finalize fluency with multidigit multiplication and extend division to twodigit divisors.
Math
Unit 2
5th Grade
In Unit 2, 5th grade students will build on their work on multidigit multiplication and division from 4th grade as well as their understanding of the structure of the baseten system in Unit 1 to develop fluency with multidigit multiplication and extend multidigit division to include twodigit divisors.
In 4th grade, students attained fluency with multidigit addition and subtraction (4.NBT.4), a necessary skill for computing sums and differences in the standard algorithm for multiplication and division, respectively. Students also multiplied a whole number of up to four digits by a onedigit whole number, as well as two twodigit numbers (4.NBT.5). By the end of 4th grade, students can compute those products using algorithms, but “reason repeatedly about the connection between math drawings and written numerical work, help[ing] them come to see multiplication and division algorithms as abbreviations or summaries of their reasoning about quantities” (Progressions for the CCSSM, “Number and Operation in Base Ten, K5", p. 14). Students also find wholenumber quotients and remainders with up to fourdigit dividends and onedigit divisors (4.NBT.6). Similar to multiplication, by the end of 4th grade, students can compute these quotients using algorithms alongside other strategies and representations so that the algorithms are meaningful rather than rote.
Unit 2 begins with writing, evaluating, and interpreting simple numerical expressions (5.OA.1, 5.OA.2). This serves both to review basic multiplication and division facts, which supports major content later on in the unit, and as a way to record calculations that will grow increasingly complex as the unit progresses. Then, students solidify the standard algorithm for multiplication with the computational cases from 4th grade before extending its use to larger and larger factors (5.NBT.5). Next, students follow a similar progression with division, first computing quotients involving cases from 4th grade using a variety of strategies and then extending those methods to computations involving twodigit divisors. Note, however, that unlike multiplication, fluency with the standard division algorithm is not expected until 6th grade (6.NS.2). Throughout the unit, students “learn to use [the] structure [of baseten numbers] and the properties of operations to reduce computing a multidigit…product or quotient to a collection of singledigit computations in different baseten units” (MP.7) (Progressions for the CCSSM, “Number and Operation in Base Ten, K5", p. 4). Further, “repeated reasoning (MP.8) that draws on the uniformity of the baseten system is a part of this process” (Progressions for the CCSSM, “Number and Operation in Base Ten, K5", p. 4).
Later this year, students will rely on their knowledge of wholenumber computations to perform them with decimals (5.NBT.7). They will also write, evaluate, and interpret expressions with fractions and decimals in Unit 5 and Unit 6 (5.OA.1, 5.OA.2). This work "in Grade 5 prefigure[s] their later work with variable expressions" (6—8.EE) (OA Progression, p. 32). Further, students solidify fluency with the division algorithm and extend fluency with all four operations to decimals (6.EE.2—3). They also extend these computations to yet unknown parts of our number system, such as negative numbers (7.NS). Thus, by the end of this unit, students will be just shy of fluency with all four operations with whole numbers and ready to perform those operations with other types of numbers. They'll also be ready to think beyond calculation of numerical expressions to the understanding and interpretation of them, hinting at a new world of mathematics—algebra.
Pacing: 23 instructional days (20 lessons, 2 flex days, 1 assessment day)
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The following assessments accompany Unit 2.
Have students complete the PreUnit Assessment and PreUnit Student SelfAssessment before starting the unit. Use the PreUnit Assessment Analysis Guide to identify gaps in foundational understanding and map out a plan for learning acceleration throughout the unit.
Have students complete the MidUnit Assessment after lesson 10.
Use the resources below to assess student understanding of the unit content and action plan for future units.
Before you teach this unit, unpack the standards, big ideas, and connections to prior and future content through our guided intellectual preparation process. Each Unit Launch includes a series of short videos, targeted readings, and opportunities for action planning to ensure you're prepared to support every student.
area model 
Example: Solve 24 × 11 using an area model

partial products algorithm 

standard algorithm for multiplication 

partial quotients algorithm 

standard algorithm for division/long division 
equation
expression
grouping symbols (parentheses/brackets/braces)
To see all the vocabulary for Unit 2, view our 5th Grade Vocabulary Glossary.
Topic A: Writing and Interpreting Numerical Expressions
Topic B: MultiDigit Whole Number Multiplication
Topic C: MultiDigit Whole Number Division
Key
Major Cluster
Supporting Cluster
Additional Cluster
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP1 — Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP2 — Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP3 — Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP4 — Model with mathematics.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP5 — Use appropriate tools strategically.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP6 — Attend to precision.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP7 — Look for and make use of structure.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP8 — Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Unit 1
Place Value with Decimals
Unit 3
Shapes and Volume
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