Students continue their work with multidigit multiplication and division and the baseten system in order to finalize fluency with multidigit multiplication and extend division to twodigit divisors.
In Unit 2, students will build on their work on multidigit multiplication and division from Grade 4 as well as their understanding of the structure of the baseten system in Unit 1 to develop fluency with multidigit multiplication and extend multidigit division to include twodigit divisors.
In Grade 4, students attained fluency with multidigit addition and subtraction (4.NBT.4), a necessary skill for computing sums and differences in the standard algorithm for multiplication and division, respectively. Students also multiplied a whole number of up to four digits by a onedigit whole number, as well as two twodigit numbers (4.NBT.5). By the end of Grade 4, students can compute those products using algorithms, but “reason repeatedly about the connection between math drawings and written numerical work, help[ing] them come to see multiplication and division algorithms as abbreviations or summaries of their reasoning about quantities” (Progressions for the CCSSM, “Number and Operation in Base Ten, K5", p. 14). Students also find wholenumber quotients and remainders with up to fourdigit dividends and onedigit divisors (4.NBT.6). Similar to multiplication, by the end of Grade 4, students can compute these quotients using algorithms alongside other strategies and representations so that the algorithms are meaningful rather than rote.
Unit 2 of Grade 5 begins with writing, evaluating, and interpreting simple numerical expressions (5.OA.1, 5.OA.2). This serves both to review basic multiplication and division facts, which supports major content later on in the unit, and as a way to record calculations that will grow increasingly complex as the unit progresses. Then, students solidify the standard algorithm for multiplication with the computational cases from Grade 4 before extending its use to larger and larger factors (5.NBT.5). Next, students follow a similar progression with division, first computing quotients involving cases from Grade 4 using a variety of strategies and then extending those methods to computations involving twodigit divisors. Note, however, that unlike multiplication, fluency with the standard division algorithm is not expected until Grade 6 (6.NS.2). Throughout the unit, students “learn to use [the] structure [of baseten numbers] and the properties of operations to reduce computing a multidigit…product or quotient to a collection of singledigit computations in different baseten units” (MP.7) (Progressions for the CCSSM, “Number and Operation in Base Ten, K5", p. 4). Further, “repeated reasoning (MP.8) that draws on the uniformity of the baseten system is a part of this process” (Progressions for the CCSSM, “Number and Operation in Base Ten, K5", p. 4).
Later this year, students will rely on their knowledge of wholenumber computations to perform them with decimals (5.NBT.7). They will also write, evaluate, and interpret expressions with fractions and decimals in Units 5 and 6 (5.OA.1, 5.OA.2). This work "in Grade 5 prefigure[s] their later work with variable expressions" (6—8.EE) (OA Progression, p. 32). Further, students solidify fluency with the division algorithm and extend fluency with all four operations to decimals (6.EE.2—3). They also extend these computations to yet unknown parts of our number system, such as negative numbers (7.NS). Thus, by the end of this unit, students will be just shy of fluency with all four operations with whole numbers and ready to perform those operations with other types of numbers. They'll also be ready to think beyond calculation of numerical expressions to the understanding and interpretation of them, hinting at a new world of mathematics—algebra.
Pacing: 23 instructional days (20 lessons, 2 flex days, 1 assessment day)
For guidance on adjusting the pacing for the 20212022 school year, see our 5th Grade Scope and Sequence Recommended Adjustments.
This assessment accompanies Unit 2 and should be given on the suggested assessment day or after completing the unit.
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area models 
Example: Solve 24 x 11 using an area model 
partial products algorithm 

standard algorithm for multiplication 

partial quotients algorithm 

standard algorithm for division/long division 
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expression
equation
grouping symbols (parenthesis, brackets, braces)
To see all the vocabulary for this course, view our 5th Grade Vocabulary Glossary.
With Fishtank Plus you can access our Daily Word Problem Practice and our contentaligned Fluency Activities created to help students strengthen their application and fluency skills.
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